By the end of the Bush 43 administration, the U.
A further discussion of the historical context for the documents posted today is helpful. As noted above, the Reagan administration played a key leadership role in fighting domestic opposition to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and in securing international agreement to the protocol.
The documents posted here show the continued efforts by the administration to secure early and wide implementation of the protocol and its role in establishing the UN-based work on a climate change framework convention. The U. Nitze presented the U.
Strategic Options for Bush Administration Climate Policy [Lee Lane] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. What new climate change policies. In Strategic Options for Bush Administration Climate Policy (AEI Press, December ), Lee Lane, executive director of the Climate Policy Center, explores the.
Here Nitze said the U. To this end, the U. However, U. President George H. Bush early on in his presidency sought to position himself as a leader on global environmental issues. This is seen in the memorandum laying out the proposed U. Noting that while British, French and Canadian leaders had staked out strong environmental positions, the U.
This is a responsibility we have to ourselves and as our legacy to future generations.
The memorandum outlines a set of initiatives to tackle global warming, as well as to combat environmental pollution. To address global warming, the interagency group recommended three proposals: steps to address deforestation and reforestation; increasing fossil fuel efficiency and expanding renewable energy; and support for nuclear energy an idea likely to elicit strong opposition from environmentalists both for energy security and to contribute to solving the greenhouse emissions problem.
The Bush 41 administration also continued to push for its approach in the U. William Nitze remained closely involved with this diplomacy.
A memorandum he prepared in Summer laid out the general principles that should guide a climate agreement Document 7. While the U. This is seen in a memorandum setting out the policy guidelines for U. This memo describes what would become repeated components of U.
There were also signs of concern over the conclusions being reached by the IPCC in its initial reports. With the election of Bill Clinton in , U. The culmination of this diplomacy was the Kyoto Protocol. Though championed by Clinton and especially by Vice President, Al Gore, in the end the administration did not submit the agreement to Congress for ratification, recognizing this would not be forthcoming in the face of political criticism of the accord, most prominently for not imposing greenhouse emission reduction targets on developing economies such as China and India.
The next stage in U. Bush White House, which brought a much more skeptical approach to efforts to tackle global climate change, driven both by the developing nations issue and by the overriding emphasis on U. Documents shed light on early discussions within the Bush administration about how it would address climate change and the U.
There is a clear concern displayed in these documents over how to address the question of economic costs associated with any imposition of greenhouse emission reductions, specifically CO 2 , and considerable thought is given to how market mechanisms could provide incentives for such reductions without serious harm to economic growth. How to secure participation by developing countries was also a major concern, linked to potential costs and the domestic political criticisms that the Kyoto Protocol did not include reduction targets for these nations.
As Document 15 notes, the U. The edits were made by Philip A.
Cooney is a lawyer with no scientific training. The White House maintained that it is a normal procedure for political appointees to edit scientific documents. The chairman of Exxon Mobil, Lee Raymond, has been an outspoken opponent of efforts to curb global warming. According to the Associated Press, Raymond has "come out strongly against the Kyoto Protocol and has repeatedly questioned the science behind climate change. Online at www.
See www. Environmental Protection Agency, June 23, Revkin and K. Revkin and Seelye, New York Times. Discredited study: W. Soon and S. Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past years. Climate Research 23 2 Study discrediting it: Michael Mann et al. On past temperatures and anomalous late 20th century warmth.
Author interviews with current EPA staff members. Names withheld on request. Author interview with EPA staff member, name withheld on request, January EPA internal memo. Russell E.
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