Cattle Inspection.

Cattle Identification Inspections
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Department of Agriculture.

Front Matter | Cattle Inspection | The National Academies Press

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC S No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U. Printed in the United States of America.

Preface Since the early s, the U. Department of Agriculture USDA has been responsible for mandatory federal meat inspection programs, which remained essentially unchanged into the s. The Food and Nutrition Board's recommendations were released in two reports published in and NRC, a, a. These systems were introduced to ensure more efficient use of inspection personnel, to help industry to become more efficient, and to assist the agency's transition to a more public health-oriented inspection.

The committee and its three consultants included experts in biostatistics, epidemiology, meat science, meat inspection, public health, veterinary pathology, veterinary microbiology, and veterinary toxicology. The committee was charged with the following tasks: 0 Evaluate SIS-C as compared to the traditional cattle inspection system and its acceptability as an alternative to traditional cattle slaughter inspection. Examine how this proposed system has integrated recommendations in the and reports, which called for FSIS to pursue new scientific directions, address contemporary public expectations for meat and poultry products, and work toward an ideal meat inspection program.

Altogether, it met six times. During their presentation to the committee, FSTS staff indicated that traditional inspection procedures were serving as the baseline for modernizing inspection and as a springboard for future improvements. FSIS regards SIS-C as an innovative system that identifies control points, increases use of plant personnel in quality control and in presentation of carcasses and parts for inspection, and incorporates statistical samples and tests to monitor products and the slaughter process.

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ANTEMORTEM AND POST MORTEM INSPECTION OF FOOD ANIMALS GENERAL . as part of inspection of all cattle and calves over the age of 6 weeks for. Inspectors may visit your holding to check that you're following the rules for cattle, bison and buffalo identification and record keeping.

SIS-C differs from traditional inspection in several ways. In traditional inspection programs, FSIS inspectors incise the bile ducts, heart, cheek muscles, and numerous lymph nodes seeking visible lesions. Inspectors are responsible for condemnation and disposition of diseased carcasses. FSIS inspectors also identify and supervise the trimming of carcasses with various dressing defects and nonconformances.

FSIS leadership believes that these conditions can be recognized by personnel with limited experience, are susceptible to market pressures, and are the responsibility of plant management. Under STS-C, however, inspectors are still responsible for condemnation and disposition of diseased carcasses and still examine every head, viscera, and carcass. In conjunction with STS-C, plants killing more than cattle per hour must have a formal written, customized, partial quality control PQC program.

The SIS-C system is currently in effect in five pilot plants conducting high speed, high volume slaughter of fed steers and heifers -- a class of animal with low prevalence of conditions detectable by traditional meat inspection procedures. The eight speakers who addressed the committee during the public meeting held on January 23, , represented consumer advocates, the meat industry, food inspectors, former USDA scientists and inspectors, and national associations Appendix C.

Some of their testimony criticized FSTS for previous deficiencies in inspection programs, for failure to emphasize public health, for unwillingness to listen to the scientific community, for reluctance to improve its technologic capacity, for failure to incorporate recommendations V1. Several speakers criticized SIS-C because responsibility for quality control is given to management of meat plants.

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This abdication, it was said, compromises the integrity of FSIS and is not feasible because it requires ideal conditions in every plant and requires plant employees to place the public interest above profit considerations. Witnesses also stated that SIS-C is flawed because head, viscera, and carcass inspection are all compromised and there is no assurance that company personnel are properly trimming contaminated areas from carcasses. These problems are compounded by staff reductions and increased paperwork for the inspection force. The opinion was expressed that SIS-C lacks clear rational statements of goals and definitions for its sampling plans and that solid scientific data supporting those plans are absent.

They suggested that clear guidelines and appeal procedures are needed if the government assumes this role.

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Most witnesses emphasized concern about microbial and chemical contaminants. The committee had to deal early with the real distinction between safety and quality because FSIS contends SIS-C is not designed to detect and remove these contaminants. The FSIS chemical residue monitoring program whether in traditional or SIS-C plants is designed to provide incidence information -- not to prevent public exposure to residues.

About Livestock Identification and Inspection

Examine and palpate dorsal and ventral surfaces of the liver, and palpate hepatic lymph nodes. Examine abdominal viscera. Carcass : Examine exposed inner and outer surfaces. Palpate the kidneys and internal iliac lymph nodes. Head and Carcass : Examine body cavities and outer surfaces. Palpate back and sides of carcass.

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Routine postmortem inspection should include the following procedures. A Welsh version of this page is also available. Judgement : Localized lesions could be disposed by an inspector, however the final judgement of the carcass should be done by a veterinarian. It may sit down frequently or become recumbent. Palpate prescapular lymph nodes. Studies in abattoirs indicate that salmonella counts in the implements used may vary from 0 — per cm 2 or more in each implement, depending on their regular cleaning and sanitation the scabbards having the highest numbers. Therefore, it is absolutely essential for meat inspectors to ensure that skinning and evisceration are done properly.

Examine head, neck, and, shoulders. Palpate prescapular lymph nodes. Examine and palpate kidneys.

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Palpate femoral, popliteal, and superficial inguinal or supramammary lymph nodes. Incise lymph nodes when necessary to exclude caseous lymphadenitis. Viscera : Examine abdominal viscera, esophagus, mesenteric lymph nodes, omental fat, and spleen. Examine bile duct and gallbladder and their contents. Examine and palpate liver and costal and ventral surfaces of lungs. Palpate bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes.

Postmortem Inspection

Examine and palpate heart. Head : Examine head and cervical muscles. Incise mandibular lymph nodes. Viscera : Examine and palpate mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. Palpate portal lymph nodes. Examine dorsal and ventral surfaces of the liver. Palpate left and right bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes. Examine and palpate dorsal and ventral surfaces of the lungs. Carcass : Examine external and internal surfaces and incise any suspected abnormalities.

Examine external surfaces for dressing defects, bruises, and disease lesions. B Multiple certificates can only be used if all the animals covered by the certificates are transported in the same vehicle and are destined for the same approved feedlot site or are clearly segregated on the load. In this case, the initial identification inspection can be conducted by electronic reading of the feedlot's animal management software system and subsequent transfer to a database. The operator of a feedlot acquiring restricted feeder cattle must have ready by the fifteenth 15 day after the import of a group of animals the following documentation:.

On-site audits of feedlots housing imported animals are to occur at least on a quarterly every three months basis to examine and verify the following records:. Private veterinarians who perform services for the feedlot may perform the audit functions and submit reports to CFIA district offices at the required time intervals. The activity of private veterinarians is subject to oversight by CFIA veterinarians, or where the audit function cannot be performed by a private veterinarian, a CFIA veterinarian will perform the service. Feedlots are responsible for the cost of having private veterinarians or approved provincial authorities perform functions.

The CFIA district office may, at their discretion, increase the frequency of the post-arrival audits if any non-compliance is observed. Application for an Import Permit The applicant must be a Canadian resident or corporation. CFIA staff, accompanied by the feedlot operator, must perform an initial inspection of the operation.

On subsequent visits, the feedlot operator's representative may accompany CFIA staff, but someone from the operation must accompany CFIA on all visits.

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During the CFIA inspection visit, the feeding operation must demonstrate the following: facilities for the handling and tracking of newly imported cattle; protocols that will complete any required post-entry procedures; maintenance of records; and a records management system that tracks movements of animals into and within the feedlot or between feedlots, and from the feedlot to a slaughter facility, and that provides confirmation of slaughter.

The seal numbers and the number of animals in the shipment must be recorded on the certificate and initialed to verify their application. A separate USDA endorsed health certificate for cattle from each site with truck sealing also taking place at each site is required. Cattle on each health certificate are segregated on the truck separate from cattle on another health certificate. A If the shipment is contained in several vehicles, the original plus one copy of the certificate must be in the first vehicle to the Canadian port of entry. Each subsequent vehicle must carry two copies of the export certificate, one of which has recorded the numbers of the seals applied to the vehicle and the number of animals in the vehicle. When multiple vehicles are used for a shipment all cattle in the shipment must be certified on the same health certificate and the number of vehicles the certificate applies to is indicated on the certificate.

Two copies of the permit issued to import restricted feeder cattle into Canada must accompany every shipment.

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Upon arrival at a port of entry, the shipment of restricted feeder cattle must be presented to Canadian Border Services Agency CBSA personnel accompanied by the documentation listed above. CBSA will release the shipment if all documents are presented and in order. A cursory examination of the shipment will be made by CBSA and if issues of non-compliance or welfare are noted CFIA shall be requested to inspect the load at the port of entry.

In the case of an emergency i. The details for inspection at destination must be provided, or arrangements must be made for CFIA inspection. Upon arrival at the feedlot, the seals may be broken and the cattle unloaded in a manner acceptable to an inspector designated under the Health of Animals Act.

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Option A: The animals must be presented for inspection and processing, as specified, within forty-eight 48 hours of arrival.